These are two arguments about God which I will be lecturing on in Apologetics next week.
The first is the cosmological argument. This attempts to prove that things have a cause and that there must be an uncaused-cause as starting place. Objects do not bring themselves into existence; they must have a cause.
1. Things exist.
2. It is possible for those things to not exist.
3. Whatever has the possibility of non existence, yet exists, has been caused to exist.
A. Something cannot bring itself into existence since it must exist to bring itself into existence which is illogical.
4. There cannot be an infinite number of causes to bring something into existence.
A. Because an infinite regression of causes ultimately has no initial cause which means there is no cause of existence.
B. Since the universe exists, it must have a cause.
5. Therefore, there must be an uncaused cause of all things.
6. The uncaused cause must be God.
God is, by definition, an uncaused cause.
The second argument is the teleological argument or the argument from design. It states that a designer must exist since the universe exhibits marks of design in order, consistency, unity, and pattern.
1. Human artifacts are products of intelligent design.
2. The universe resembles human artifacts.
3. Therefore the universe is a product of intelligent design.
4. But the universe is complex and gigantic, in comparison to human artifacts.
5. Therefore, there probably is a powerful and vastly intelligent designer who created the universe.
William Paley(1743-1805) gave the Watchmaker analogy for this argument. That is, if you found a watch lying on the side of the road, you would not suppose that the watch had always been there. You would know that someone had to make the watch.
In one class for little kids, the teacher taught this by bringing in all the fixings for a cake. She turned on the oven to the right temperature. Then she dropped eggs (whole), into the pan, along with sugar, flour, oil, and water. Then she asked if anyone wanted to eat the cake. If just putting the right things together made a cake, the kids should have been clamoring for a piece of cake. But they weren't. Because the ingredients in and of themselves don't make a cake. Anymore than a bunch of proteins and amino acids, alone, without design, make a human being.